|Top to Bottom: Double Chain (dch); "Foundation Slip Stitch" (fslst); Foundation Single Crochet (fsc)|
Above is a visual comparison of the three slimmest, simplest chainless foundations that I know of. They are all stretchier and easier to work into than foundation chains. (I've omitted fancier decorative ones such as picot foundations.)
What follows is a photo tutorial for making each of them: the classic dch, the dark horse fslst, and the popular fsc. By doing it this way I hope to make it very clear how these three overlap yet differ in a few key ways. It's easy to confuse them as being the same thing. This actually keeps us from recognizing that we have more choices in how we start a new crochet project than we thought!
(Below, the step-by-step photos may look a bit jumbled on some people's screens. To view them enlarged in high resolution, and in their original order with full descriptions, you might prefer to see them in this photo set.)
From my research I found that the top/yellow stitch is traditionally called "Double Chain" (occasionally, Double Foundation Chain, Double Chain Stitch, etc.) and is consistently abbreviated "dch". When I say traditionally, I mean that I found this stitch with this name and abbreviation in over half of the 43 books, dating from the 1800's to 2010. (In the rest of the books, I found no alternative to a foundation chain at all.)
The bottom/blue stitch is much newer than the dch and seems to be gaining widespread acceptance, especially on the internet. I found it in a smattering of books from 2005 to the present; it also appeared online in 1998, thanks to Mary Rhodes. This stitch is by now almost always called "Foundation Single Crochet" and abbreviated "fsc." The ultimate source is Marty Miller's article, "Get in the Loop: Foundation Stitches" in the Spring 2007 issue of Interweave Crochet magazine.
The green stitch in the center is my personal favorite of these three choices. I'm not the first to use it, but this exact stitch does not appear in any of the books I have. It simply combines what I think is the best of the dch and the fsc.
I wrestled with what to name it. "Foundation slip stitch" (fslst) has its pros & cons, as do all other names I considered, such as "alt fsc" and "extended slst." I'm going with fslst because in a "family" of foundation stitches like the fsc (and taller versions such as fdc, ftr, and so on), is there a slimmer option than the fsc for times when it's too beefy to substitute for a plain foundation chain, but I still need something stretchy? As you can see in the top photo, the fslst is the slimmest of all. It is without a doubt the one perfect foundation for my Work@Home Vest neckline.
Here are the instructions to go with each step-by-step photo.
To begin the dch, the fslst, and the fsc, chain 2.
For dch (left/yellow): insert hook in ONE top loop of 2nd ch from hook.
For fsc (far right/blue): insert hook in TWO loops of 2nd ch from hook.
Yarn over hook and pull up a loop: 2 loops on hook.
For dch: Yarn over and pull through both loops on hook: first dch stitch made.
For fslst: Yarn over and pull through both loops on hook: first fslst stitch made.
To make the next fslst: insert hook under the TWO strands along the left side (if you're crocheting right handed) of fslst just made, yarn over and pull up a loop.
To make the next fsc: insert hook under TWO strands of the base chain (that you are hopefully pinching with your fingers) of fsc just made, yarn over and pull up a loop.
To complete the dch: Yarn over and pull through BOTH loops on hook. Avoid "yanking" it tight. Repeat Steps 5 and 6 for desired number of foundation stitches.
To complete the fslst: Yarn over and pull through BOTH loops on hook. Avoid "yanking" it tight. Repeat Steps 5 and 6 for desired number of foundation stitches.
To complete the fsc: Yarn over and pull through ONE loop on hook. Avoid "yanking" it tight. (Pinch this stitch to mark it for yourself that it's where you'll start the next fsc.) Yarn over and pull through both loops on hook to complete the fsc. Repeat Steps 5 and 6 for desired number of foundation stitches.
If you want to learn more about foundation crochet stitches, see my post about Marty Miller's new online crochet class. Great class for all crochet skill levels!
For Tunisian crochet foundation stitches—and why they're awesome—I blogged a how-to here.